This Sicilian no knead bread recipe holds a solid place on my short list of favorite no knead recipes. Huge thanks to its creator Ed Pillitteri from Seattle, who is generously sharing it with us. Serve with spaghetti, eggplant parmesan or lasagna and watch your family or guests weep with joy.

Ed Pillitteri - Sicilian No Knead Creator

Ed Pillitteri – Sicilian No Knead Creator

That’s the good news.

On the flip side, some of its ingredients are not easily found in most grocery stores. One of those is durum flour. While closely related to common durum semolina flour, which is also milled from durum wheat, durum flour is typically a finer grind and performs better in bread baking than its courser cousin. If you happen to live near a Whole Foods type grocery store, see if they carry it. Otherwise, check for chapatti flour. Chapatti flour, used mostly for the Indian flat bread, is durum flour with a little bran in it. I’ve used both and can’t tell the difference.

Update: See Ed’s comment below about doing a search for “Golden Temple Durum Atta Flour”. Same goes for this reference by Kitchen Barbarian (nice name!). Also, thanks to Eileen for finding another good on line source for durum flour (http://www.barryfarm.com). And this from Kent Perry… good work, Kent.

The other not so common ingredient is barley malt syrup. Most health food grocers should either sell it or be able to get it for you. The brand I see around is Eden (edenfoods.com). Barley malt syrup is occasionally called for in other bread recipes as well, most notably bagel recipes.

If you’ve made it this far and are actually ready to start baking, congratulations, the rest is relatively easy.

Following is the recipe, instructions and a two part video thrown in for good measure. In the videos I make Ed’s original version and also a sourdough version.

No Knead Sicilian Style Bread

300 grams  (~2 cups)  Durum flour (not semolina for pasta)
120 grams (~1 cup)  White bread flour
1 1/2 tsp.   Salt
1/4 tsp          Instant Yeast
1 1/2 cup      Purified Water
1 Tbs          Barley Malt Syrup
1 Tbs          EV Olive Oil
1/4 cup          Sesame Seeds

(for the sourdough version I simply substitute 1/4 cup of starter for the 1/4 tsp instant yeast)

Mix the two flours, salt and yeast in a bowl.  In a separate container (2 cup measuring cup works well) measure out the water then add the malt and stir until combined.  Add the olive oil and pour it all into the flour mixture.  The mixture may seem too dry but don’t  add more water.  The Durum flour takes a bit longer to absorb the water so cover for 10 minutes after mixing then mix again, briefly.

Place the bowl in plastic bag or cover with plastic wrap and let rise for 18 hours.

On a well floured surface, flatten dough and fold into three (like a letter) then in half.  Cover with plastic or a towel and let rest for 15 minutes.

Preparing the  proofing basket: Brush or spray the inside of the basket liberally with good olive oil.  While standing over the sink (to avoid a mess), sprinkle the sesame seeds evenly inside the bowl, pressing them in the grooves (if using a basket) with your fingers.

Depending on the container (proofing basket) to be used, shape the dough into a ball or log.  Place dough in the basket, cover with a kitchen towel or lightly with plastic and let rise for up to 1 ½ hours.

At least 30 minutes before baking, heat a large Dutch oven, including lid,  or La Cloche Baker ( highly recommended) in the oven at 475 degrees.  Once preheated, remove the lid, invert the loaf into the La Cloche, replace lid and bake for 30 minutes.  (The parchment paper technique, shown in the video, also works well for moving the dough to your baking vessel.) After 30 minutes with the lid on, remove lid and bake for 5 to 10 minutes more to finish baking and achieve a nice golden brown crust and toasted sesame seeds – be careful not to burn yourself.

Cool to room temperature on a rack before eating – no cheating.  Buon Appetito .

Notes:

Ed later added this:

“I lightly toasted lightly toasted the sesame seeds in a frying pan then soaked them in water for a few minutes and drained them well.  I lined an oblong proofing basket with parchment paper, lightly sprayed with oil, and let the dough rise as usual.  Just before baking, I brushed the top of the loaf with water then packed the seeds all over the top in a single layer, lowered it into the La Cloche and slashed the loaf one time down the center.   I think the combination of toasting and increased quantity of the sesame seeds added a lot of flavor.”

One of Ed's Gems

One of Ed’s Gems

Nice oven spring and natural split

Nice oven spring and natural split

By placing your dough in the oven before it’s fully risen, you’re more likely to get the nice oven spring (a quick burst of rising in the first minutes of baking) and the artsy splits in the crust as pictured above. In the video, the oblong loaf over proofed (for my taste) and rose no further during baking.

217 thoughts on “Sicilian No Knead Bread

  1. Matthew

    Can someone please tell me the procedure when using a Romertopf to bake bread. ie) does it need to soak first & heat up time prior to baking bread in it.

    Thanks,
    Matthew

  2. Ed Pillitteri

    Hi Allan,
    Your post has me grinning from ear to ear. Your enthusiasm reminds me of my own 25 years ago when I started baking (in self defense) from an outpost in north Texas, far away from any bread that didn’t come in a plastic bag. The Sicilian (aka semolina bread) recipe being your favorite after months of trying all of Breadtopia’s finest is very rewarding for me, thanks for taking the time to say so and to share your experience. I’m my own best customer so hearing from others is sweet affirmation.
    I hardily agree with Big Tuna’s comments re experimentation and for that matter, everything else he’s ever posted. That man knows how to bake bread and now that he’s not chasing bad guys anymore we’ll be looking for some new material!! Salute!
    Only one thought on your oozing dough experience. Have you been measuring the flour by volume or by weight? I ask because I’ve seen recipes from credible sources that state one cup as being as little as 115 grams and others as high as 140. This recipe needs a total of 420 grams of flour. At any rate, whatever works for you is the way to go. Thanks again.
    Ed

  3. Big Tuna

    Dear Allan,

    Thank you for the kind words. Never be afraid to deviate from the recipe if it’s not working for you. You just might find some thing better. That’s why I love baking bread. It fulfills many of our needs at one time & then you get to eat some truly great bread.

    I hope you keep at it. Buona Fortuna.

    Big Tuna

    p.s. I just retired after 30 years in law enforcement & I could’nt be happier.

  4. Allan Castine

    Hi Eric,

    This will take a while, my friend, so get comfortable.

    As you may remember, I started baking bread shortly after I found your wonderful Web site last December. Since then, I’ve tried almost all of your online recipes and several other bread recipes from the King Arthur Flour Web site. Today I would like to announce that of all the many loaves of bread I have made (42 at last count), my all-time favorite is Ed Pillitteri’s Sicilian No-Knead Bread recipe.

    I’ve made Ed’s recipe 8 or 9 times and always with excellent results. However, each time I made it, my dough was so moist and sticky that it was literally impossible to shape into anything resembling a log. I had to actually “pour” the dough into my proofing basket and then “pour” it again into my oblong La Cloche Baker.

    I always watch your video before making this (or any other) recipe just to remind myself of how to do it. I use the exact same ingredients you used in your video and I measure my ingredients with military precision using the very fine scale I purchased from you.

    Each time I view the video, I marvel at how YOUR dough – unlike mine – is so easily shaped into a ball or log. Yesterday, I decided to explore this frustrating phenomenon a little deeper by reading all of the comments submitted by your online audience regarding this recipe. My hope was to find comments – and, hopefully, a solution to the problem – from someone who was having the same problem as I.

    When I read Officer “Big Tuna’s” posts about the hydration of his dough, I decided to cut back on the water content to see what would happen. Instead of using 1-1/2 cups (12 oz.) of water as called for in the recipe, I
    used only 10 oz., and the results were amazing.

    After mixing all of the ingredients with my dough whisk, the dough was EXTREMELY dry and VERY difficult to whisk. I was tempted to add some more water but I resisted the temptation. I put the bowl of dough in a plastic bag, as always, and let it sit at room temperature for the suggested 18 hours.

    This morning I was pleased to see that the dough had risen nicely and, more importantly, was of a consistency that replicated what your dough looks like in your video.

    I did the stretch & fold trick and let the dough rest for 15 minutes. Then came the final test: would I be able to mold my dough into a log? Answer: absolutely! It was a snap. I easily shaped the dough into a perfect log and then put it into my lightly-oiled-parchment-paper-lined proofing basket for its final proofing period.

    I reduced the time of this last proofing period to just one hour, popped the dough into my heated La Cloche baking vessel, and the rest (as they say) is history: I ended up with the best loaf of Ed’s Sicilian No-Knead Bread I have ever made. Absolute perfection. I could not be happier.

    Thanks, Big Tuna… you’re my kind of cop! And thank YOU, Mr. Pillitteri, for your extraordinary recipe. In my view, it’s the best of the best on Eric’s wonderful Web site.

    Allan Castine
    Haverhill, MA
    Retired

  5. Ed Pillitteri
  6. lucia pellitteri

    Gentissimo
    signor Pellitteri, la famiglia di mio marito è di origine siciliana. Sono curiosa, vorreei sapere se siete lontani parenti. Lei ricorda i nomi dei suoi avi e da dove venivano?
    Spero conosca l’italiano saluti Lucia

  7. Mightychef

    Most supermarkets no longer carry fresh cake yeast.
    It is too perishible and there is little demand for it any more.
    Typically a market must order a case of 12 cakes at a wholesale cost of $14.00. Last I remember a cake sold for about $2.00.
    This has a shelf life at delivery of about 3 weeks. There is no return option for the market, so unsold product is a loss to the store.
    This may or may not seem like much but over time the loss far outweighs any profit to the market.
    Just another casualty of our modern lifestyles.

  8. For those of us who have (and LOVE) our bread machines, can I use the recipes online here in the bread machines?

  9. Gina

    Diane, if you’re still in Canada, the Bulk Barn stores carry Durum flour.

  10. Hi Diane,

    Thanks for the nice comments. As for cake yeast, I can’t find it anymore either. I would imagine some professional bakers still use it so you might try asking at a local bakery. Otherwise, I think most bakers have gone to using just dry yeast.

  11. Dianne

    I’m so glad I found your site and the information on durum bread. 30 years ago I used to buy durum bread in Toronto, but moved and have not been able to find it since. That bread had a wonderful texture, with a yeasty flavor and good keeping properties.

    Your video is wonderful, and I’m going to make this bread as soon as I find the durum flour. thanks!!

    P.S. Is it possible to buy cake yeast? I haven’t seen it in the grocery store for years.

  12. Gina

    I’m not sure if this thread is still live, but here goes my two cents’ worth.

    One: In Canada I have bought durum flour at the Bulk Barn. I would think bulk stores in the US and online would carry it.

    Two: After a couple of batches have gone rancid on me, I now keep semolina flour and semolina for pasta in the fridge or the freezer.

    Gina

  13. Alison

    I just bought 5 kg of white durum flour at my local NoFrills in Toronto for ~$10. It’s in the middle of Little India, so there would be a market for the flour.

    But I am pretty sure durum flour is not rare anywhere there’s a South Asian population in Canada, where we are known for our wheat and our welcoming immigration policies.

    Makes for good baking.

  14. I agree with Bob. Unless you can get a deal on Ebay or used somewhere, they’re not worth the money.

    If you do want to go that route anyway, consider 2 Fibrament stones (one on lower rack and one on upper rack). Better product, better results, less money.

  15. jessie

    I would like to purchase a “kitchen hearth” insert insert for my stove. Do you have any idea where I can obtain such an item. I believe it is made out of the same clay as a Kiln is produced from.

  16. I think instant yeast should work fine. I’m just not sure how much. Maybe try a teaspoon and see how it goes. Mix it into the flour before adding to the water.

  17. jessie

    I just finished watching your video on your SPELT bread. I dont keep sour dough starter in the house. What can I use instead of a starter?? Yeast??

  18. David

    He Thanx Big Tuna! That’s a start. Didn’t touch the sourdough yet but that is what i’m aiming for……

  19. Big Tuna

    David,

    I did run across a general rule of thumb for yeast on a site some time ago. It basically said to use a 1/2 tsp of yeast per cup of flour. It did not go into proofing times, so I took that to mean using a recipe that has quicker proofing times, not an 18 hour proof. If I can locate the site I’ll post it so everyone can read it.

    I also make sourdough bread. I use a 1/4 cup of stiff starter or 1/2 cup of a more liquid starter. But, again we are using a 12 – 16 hour initial proofing.

  20. David

    Yup like i said i figured that out (not too hard ;-) I just wondered weather you can use a formula for it. I’ll search the net for it.

  21. alfreedo

    David – So little yeast ….. so much time. I’m sure you know that yeast is a living organism that reproduces itself under the “right” conditions, water, food, (flour in this case), proper temperature, and time. So to get lots of leavening power in a short time (2-3 hours) … lots of yeast, long time (16 hours)… little yeast.

  22. David

    Hi Big Tuna,

    Thanks for your posting. I’ll delve into the hydration some more. I just wondered if for a no knead bread you can use the same hydration %’s I guess you can since you use them ;-) Did you ever come across any ‘yeast-formula’? I’m amazed by how little yeast is used compared to ‘normal’ quicker bread. Some use 20g yeast for 500g. I can can figure out why but just wondered what would happen if you would add like a spoonfull to a no knead bread. I’ll try one day. Thanks again.
    Cheerio

  23. Big Tuna

    Hi , David. This is Big Tuna. I hope Eric doesn’t mind if I try to help out here.
    According to Jeffrey Hamelman in his book “Bread A Baker’s Book of Techniques & Recipes” bakers like to refer to ingredients by weight (lb/kg) or in baker’s percentages. To a professional baker the total weight of the flour in any given recipe is always 100%. Lets say that our recipe has a total of 2 lbs of flour(7 1/4 C). That gives us 2 lbs = 100%. The water is then 1lb,6.1oz or 69% of the weight of the flour. In general, I try to keep my hydration at around 2/3
    or 66%. Hamelman has recipes that range from 62 – 73% hydration depending on the type of bread. Breads like rye & ciabatta & others have a wetter consistency. Hamelman’s recipe for Semolina (durum) bread has a 62% hydration.

    Basically I try to make sure that my dough is tacky not sticky. When it’s tacky you can handle it without it sticking to your hands & it will be able to hold a shape. If it’s sticky it will be all over your hands & flatten out as soon as you let it go.

    Adjustments will always be necessary as the weather & humidity play a role in the moisture content of the ingredients. Make adjustments in tablespoon increments; too dry add a spoonful of water at a time; too wet add a spoonful of flour until the dough is the right texture.

    Baking good bread is fun & changelling. I hope this helps you.
    Keep at it; we’re right behind you.

  24. David

    Hi Eric,

    Thanks for the recipe! It’s great. I’ve been fooling around with making bread for a just a short period. But i’m quite happy with the ones i’ve made and the Sicillian takes the biscuit. I do however have a question. Few days ago i found myself out of durum, i only had about 3/5 of the amount needed. I substituted some farro flour, totally different beast i know but i was curious. In the end the bread turned out ok’ish. It did however take longer to bake as it stayed wet. My question to you is: If i want to use say spelt instead of white flour how do i go about to calculate the amount of water needed. It can’t be all trial and error can it?

    ANother question, i looked for some foccacia recipe, am i correct in that i couldn’t find one?

    Thanks again for all your effort and great site.

    David

  25. ConnieM

    My durum flour was not milled fine enough apparently. I found a fairly good desccription of this flour at this site.

    http://www.theartisan.net/sicilian_bread.htm

    Maybe it will help those of you still looking for the durum flour for this Sicilian bread. The protein content for my flour was 4 gm. Other flours were a little higher, fractionally, than this flour so using the higher quantity of flour was probably a good decision.

  26. ConnieP

    This note should be before my note above. It explains the ratio I used for my first attempt at Sicilian NK bread.

    Thank you for the prompt reply. I used one cup of the durum and 2 of the bread flour. The dough turned out pretty dark,, the flour seemed rather yellow, not light yellow, almost dirty golden. It felt coarse so we’ll see. It did seem to come together well, seemed a little dry but now 2 hours later it looks pretty wet.

  27. ConnieP

    My loaf is done. It rose beautifully and the flavor was awesome. I ate the first piece without butter and it really didn’t need the butter. My second piece was a test (haha) for the butter and that rang the bells. I’m still not sure of my flour so next time I’ll use the larger part of durum flour to AP or bread flour. I didn’t have the barley malt syrup so I used a tablespoon of Carnation malted milk. It rose up against the top of my old oval pyrex casserole. The recipe is a keeper; I’m sure I’ll be using this over and over with my own tweekings. Thank you so much for sharing your wonderful recipe.

  28. Ed P

    Hi Connie,
    I think you have the correct flour. I don’t have a bag of the Golden Temple on hand but as I recall, the last time I did it read “100 whole wheat”.

    The flour should be light yellow in color and you will see no flecs bran. You will know immediately if the flour is too coarse because the dough will not come together.

  29. ConnieP

    I finally found durum flour at an asian store. Was so excited finding it , however, they had a whole lot of choices. I settled on GoldenTemple but now that I’m home, I see that it’s 100% whole wheat durum atta flour. On a web site, I see that there is a GoldenTemple red stripe flour that does not say 100% whole wheat. This one says it has no added maida refined white flour. Will this flour be too coarse? I’m going to start my dough tonight using SDstarter. I’m thinking perhaps I should flip the durum flour with the bread flour if, indeed, the flour I should have purchased was the flour with added refined flour added (I think). At any rate, if all this is missing is the white flour then I’m OK, but if the flour is too coarse, then I may be disappointed. Thanks for any input.

  30. Ed

    Hi Jessie,
    A glazed pot isn’t necessary nor is parchment paper although you can use it if you like. Eric uses parchment in his video on Almost No Knead Bread. It makes lowering the loaf into the pot a lot easier. Any pot used for no knead baking needs a lid and be sure that any handles or knobs are able to withstand the high heat. Don’t forget to pre-heat the pot & lid.

  31. jessie

    can I use a cast iron pot that is not glazed??
    do I have to line the pot with parchment paper to prevent from sticking?

  32. Carole Cerase

    Hi Eric, I made my dough last week, after the 18hr rise, I put it into my tupperware container and left it for a good week in the refrigerator. When I had time I took it out, let it rise for 2 hours, put it into my Enamel coated cast iron pot (450), I cooked it like normal 30min with cover, about 10 min without. It was great. What a lifesaver. I also made rolls like Ed suggested and they were great also. This method makes it so easy, I can do the 18hr. during the week, and on the weekend have dough available when I want to make it. I have a Enamel covered cast iron pot, its not a le Cruet, but
    a similar one from Belgium. I also used the parchment paper on the bottom to stop it from scorching. I am saving up for the kind of baker you use. Thanks again.

  33. Carole Cerase

    Hi Eric, I made my dough last week, after the 18hr rise, I put it into my tupperware
    container and left it for a good week in the refrigerator. When I had time I took it out, let it rise for 2 hours, put it into my Enamel coated cast iron pot (450), I cooked it like normal 30min with cover, about 10 min without. It was great. What a lifesaver. I also made rolls like Ed suggested and they were great also. This method makes it so easy, I can do the 18hr. during the week, and on the weekend have dough available when I want to make it. I have a Enamel covered cast iron pot, its not a le Cruet, but
    a similar one from Belgium. I also used the parchment paper on the bottom to stop
    it from scorching. I am saving up for the kind of baker you use. Thanks again.

  34. Hi John,

    You can use a cast iron Dutch oven with lid or any number of clay bakers.

  35. I watched your video and want to try making the nona bread. I noticed you put the bread in some kind of pans with lids. What are they and where can I get them thanks John

  36. Carole

    Hi Eric, I have made your recipe 3 times so far and am very pleased. I could kick myself for discarding my clay bakers before finding this site. Anyway, someone posted about storing the dough in the refrigerator after the 18 hr rise in tupperware, of course I cannot find that post now. Can anyone help.
    Thanks, Carole

  37. Ed

    Hi Mike,
    Thanks for the input and kind words.
    The subject of “seed management” has been a work in progress since the original recipe was posted. My apologies for the confusion.
    The bottom line – forget soaking the seeds. It was only marginally effective.
    Ed

  38. Mike Belgiorno

    I made the Sicilian No Knead using Ed’s original instructions and was very happy with the results. However, after then reading Ed’s 12/22/08 post, I am unclear as to whether he soaks the toasted sesame seeds before adding them to the top of the loaf when he uses a egg/water wash? In other words, what is the purpose of soaking the seeds? Help with adherence? Burning? Both? Other? My thanks to Ed for a great recipe!

  39. Hi Big Tuna,

    Your bread looks pretty good to me!

    I’m don’t know why the big range of results from one baker to another while following the same recipe. Weather conditions can affect the dough hydration and flour can vary in moisture content.

    Ultimately, I think it mostly comes down to playing around with different ratios of flour and water, like you’re doing, until you strike the right consistency.

  40. Big Tuna

    Hi Eric,
    I’m a police officer & began baking bread 5 years ago as a way to relieve stress & have some quality bread. I started with a bread machine which was OK, but made a kind of like “near-bread”. I had a lot of failures when I started to make real bread. I baked one loaf that came out looking like a brown brick. I threw it in the back yard figuring the squirrels would eat it. The next morning I found it by my back door. I guess the squirrels gave it back.

    I bought books on bread baking & sourdough. I started my own strain of wild yeast & have kept it alive for four years. I found your website just recently & have enjoyed reading & learning from you & the others on this site. Being Italian, I was thrilled to find the Sicilian bread recipe.

    I have made the recipe twice; one with yeast & one sourdough. I will Email you some pics. They both tasted great. The only problem I can see is that the water content is too high. The first time I made it (yeast) it was soupy & I had to add 9 table spoons of bread flour to get the dough to form into a ball that I could handle. The second time I made it (sourdough) I cut the water back to 1 1/4 cups. It was still too wet & would not form into a dough ball.
    It took several additional table spoons of flour before it would form into a ball.

    I checked the recipe & watched your video again & you do say to use 1 1/2
    cups of water. I even used a scale set to grams & weighed the ingredients so that I would be accurate.

    So, what am I doing wrong?
    Big Tuna

    Big Tuna's Bread

    Big Tuna's Bread

    Big Tuna's Bread

    Big Tuna's Bread

    Big Tuna's Bread

  41. I’m not sure how you test flour for freshness. Your typical milled flour that is degermed will keep for ages as long as it’s not infested with bugs which can be detected by sight. It’s milled whole wheat flour containing the wheat germ oil that I would be concerned would get rancid, or at least loose much of its nutritional value through oxidation eventually. Whole wheat berries (wheat before milling) will last ages as well.

  42. Sage

    I finally found Durum flour in an Indian Market, thanks to a tip above. I did a google search with my zip for Indian grocery markets, and Main Street Market in Woodland, CA came up. They sell Hathibrand Durum Flour Atta in 20 lb bags at 10.49. I haven’t baked with it yet, and am wondering, since the storefront seemed to advertise as a liquor store, and I’m not sure how quickly flour would move off their shelves, if there was some way of knowing when flour is fresh, since the bag didn’t carry an expiration date. Can you tell the freshness of flour by sight or is it a taste thing? Thanks.

  43. mightychef

    Reading your recent addition of the Sicilian No-Knead Bread, there seems to be a great deal of confusion regarding Durum Wheat and Semolina.
    All Semolina produced in the U.S. is made from Durum Wheat. This is a federally mandated standard.
    Semolina is milled from the endosperm of the Durum wheat berry. The germ and bran are removed.
    Most Semolina is used in the production of high quality pasta. The ingredient list will state “100% Durum Semolina” or Durum Semolina plus other ingredients such as egg in egg noodles.
    Most Semolina is granulated (coarse grind).
    It can be reground by the home baker to produce fine Semolina flour in a blender, food processor or grain mill.
    A couple of sources I researched on bread stated that the coarser version of Semolina can be used in bread with extra time being allowed for the Semolina to fully hydrate.
    This should not be a problem in the No-Knead recipe, due to the 12-18 hour fermentation time.
    Duram Atta flour is by definition a whole wheat product.
    The percentage of germ and bran is variable.
    “Atta is the Hindi word for a kind of wheat flour commonly used in South Asian cooking. It is a whole wheat flour made from hard wheat.” Wikipedia.com
    In Canada flour can be referred to as “whole wheat” with as much 70% of the germ removed.
    Canadian consumers can be assured of whole-grain products by a label stating “100% whole grain whole wheat”.
    The confusing thing regarding the Sicilian No-Knead bread is the use of Durum flour.
    The Sicilian bread recipes that I am familiar with use Semolina as an ingredient, as a topping and under the loaf much as cornmeal under rye bread.
    I think that your viewers can feel free to experiment with both products of the Durum wheat berry.
    I also would like to relate that many people from South-Western Asia, i.e. India, Pakistan, etc… have a dim view of Golden Temple Durum Atta Flour, at least when used in their traditional breads.
    For Roti, Paratha, Naan and Chapati this is not a product comparable to the flour of their homeland.
    This is not meant to infer that GT flour is not acceptable for the Sicilian NK bread.
    I have included several excerpts from other websites on the subject of Durum and Semolina.
    Thank You,
    Darrell

    Durum wheat or macaroni wheat (also spelled Durhum); (Triticum durum or Triticum turgidum durum) is the only tetraploid species of wheat of commercial importance that is widely cultivated today.
    Durum in Latin means “hard”, and the species is the hardest of all wheats. Its high protein and gluten content, as well as its strength, make durum good for special uses.
    Durum wheat is a tetraploid wheat, having twenty-eight chromosomes, unlike hard red winter and hard red spring wheats, which are hexaploid and have forty-two chromosomes each.
    Production
    Most of the durum grown today is amber durum, the grains of which are amber-colored and larger than those of other types of wheat.
    Durum has a yellow endosperm, which gives pasta its color.
    When durum is milled, the endosperm is ground into a granular product called semolina. Semolina made from durum is used for premium pastas and breads.
    There is also a red durum, used mostly for livestock feed.
    Processing
    Durum wheat is subject to four processes: cleaning, milling, tempering and purifying.
    First durum wheat is cleaned to remove foreign material and shrunken and broken kernels. Then it is tempered to a moisture content, toughening the seed coat for efficient separation of bran and endosperm. Durum milling is a complex procedure involving repetitive grinding and sieving. Proper purifying results in maximum semolina yield and the least amount of bran powder.[16]
    To produce bread, durum wheat is ground into flour. The flour is mixed with water to produce dough. The quantities mixed vary, depending on the acidity of the mixture. The dough is fermented for hours and then mixed with yeast and lukewarm water. The quality of the bread produced depends on viscoelastic properties of gluten, protein content and protein composition.

  44. Reading your recent addition of the Sicilian No-Knead Bread, there seems to be a great deal of confusion regarding Durum wheat and Semolina.
    All Semolina produced in the U.S. is made from Durum wheat. This is a federally mandated standard.
    Semolina is milled from the endosperm of the Durum wheat berry. The germ and bran are removed. Most Semolina is used in the production of high quality pasta. The ingredient list will state “100% Durum Semolina” or Durum Semolina plus other ingredients such as egg in egg noodles.
    Most Semolina is granulated (coarse grind). It can be reground by the home baker to produce fine Semolina flour in a blender, food processor or grain mill.
    A couple of sources I researched on bread stated that the coarser version of Semolina can be used in bread with extra time being allowed for the Semolina to fully hydrate. This should not be a problem in the No-Knead recipe, due to the 12-18 hour fermentation time.
    Duram Atta flour is by definition a whole wheat product. The percentage of germ and bran is variable.
    “Atta” is the Hindi word for a kind of wheat flour commonly used in South Asian cooking. It is a whole wheat flour made from hard wheat.” Wikipedia.com
    In Canada flour can be referred to as “whole wheat” with as much 70% of the germ removed.
    Canadian consumers can be assured of whole-grain products by a label stating “100% whole grain whole wheat”.
    The confusing thing regarding the Sicilian No-Knead bread is the use of Durum flour.
    The Sicilian bread recipes that I am familiar with use Semolina as an ingredient, as a topping and under the loaf much as cornmeal under rye bread.
    I think that your viewers can feel free to experiment with both products of the Durum wheat berry.
    I also would like to relate that many people from South-Western Asia, i.e. India, Pakistan, etc… have a dim view of Golden Temple Durum Atta Flour, at least when used in their traditional breads. This is a Canadian flour product.
    For Roti, Paratha, Naan and Chapati this is not a product comparable to the flour of their homeland.
    This is not meant to infer that GT flour is not acceptable for the Sicilian NK bread.
    I have included several excerpts from other websites on the subject of Durum and Semolina.
    Thank You,
    Darrell

    Durum wheat or macaroni wheat (also spelled Durhum); (Triticum durum or Triticum turgidum durum) is the only tetraploid species of wheat of commercial importance that is widely cultivated today.
    Durum in Latin means “hard”, and the species is the hardest of all wheats. Its high protein and gluten content, as well as its strength, make durum good for special uses.
    Durum wheat is a tetraploid wheat, having twenty-eight chromosomes, unlike hard red winter and hard red spring wheats, which are hexaploid and have forty-two chromosomes each.

    Production
    Most of the durum grown today is amber durum, the grains of which are amber-colored and larger than those of other types of wheat. Durum has a yellow endosperm, which gives pasta its color.
    When durum is milled, the endosperm is ground into a granular product called semolina. Semolina made from durum is used for premium pastas and breads. There is also a red durum, used mostly for livestock feed.

    Processing
    Durum wheat is subject to four processes: cleaning, milling, tempering and purifying.
    First durum wheat is cleaned to remove foreign material and shrunken and broken kernels. Then it is tempered to a moisture content, toughening the seed coat for efficient separation of bran and endosperm. Durum milling is a complex procedure involving repetitive grinding and sieving. Proper purifying results in maximum semolina yield and the least amount of bran powder.
    To produce bread, durum wheat is ground into flour. The flour is mixed with water to produce dough. The quantities mixed vary, depending on the acidity of the mixture. The dough is fermented for hours and then mixed with yeast and lukewarm water. The quality of the bread produced depends on viscoelastic properties of gluten, protein content and protein composition.

  45. jessie

    Thank you for answering so soon. Just so happens that I did take the temp. and it was 210o I used a quick read thermometer. I also let it cool down almost the whole day. ( I went shopping when I took it out of the oven)
    The only thing that I can think of is that i baked it in a teflon pot.

  46. What was the internal temp when you removed it from the oven?

    Or did you perhaps cut it too soon?

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